This document is the seventh module in Volume 1 of the teaching manual on trade and gender prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The teaching manual has been developed with the aim of enhancing the capacity of policymakers, civil society organizations, and academics to assess the gender implications of trade flows and trade policy, and to formulate gender-sensitive policies on gender and trade. The first three modules of Volume I provide a review of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on the two-way relationship between gender and trade. These three modules have been followed by the development of additional teaching material to illustrate how the framework presented in Modules 1 to 3 can be applied to examine the specific circumstances and institutions of individual world regions. Module 4 examines the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA); Module 4a focuses on the East African Community (EAC); Module 4b centres on the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and Module 4c examines the Southern Common Market (Mercado Común del Sur - MERCOSUR). The present study, Module 4d, applies the framework developed in Modules 1 to 3 to the case of Central America (figure 1). The module covers Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. This module starts with a brief overview of trade liberalization policies in Central America and presents a comparative picture of the socio-economic profiles of the countries in the region. The second section examines the gender gaps in the domains of capabilities (i.e. education), access to resources and opportunities (i.e. employment, resources, decision-making), and security (i.e. gender-based violence). It also discusses the implications of these gaps for women’s participation in trade. Section 3 introduces gender-related inputs, namely the legal and institutional framework on gender equality at the international, regional and national levels. Section 4 presents an overview of gender mainstreaming efforts in trade policy and a descriptive analysis of the trade structure for each country. It then presents a review of case studies on the gender impact of trade liberalization in each broad sector of the economy (i.e. agriculture, industry and services), and carries out a macroeconomic empirical analysis on how trade openness affects female employment patterns in the region. The last section concludes the module and discusses the policy implications derived from the study.