Turkey is the fastest growing OECD economy with rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Since 2008, its economic growth has been relatively decoupled from air emissions, energy use, waste generation and water consumption. However, the high resource intensity of Turkey’s economy and its heavy reliance on fossil fuels will continue to increase these environmental pressures in absolute terms. More progress is needed in the transition to a low-carbon, circular economy to improve the country’s environmental performance. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Turkey. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change and urban wastewater management.