This report discusses the contribution of social protection to social inclusion focusing, in particular, on the extent to which such groups are effectively covered by existing social protection measures. An overall assessment of the impact of social protection on the reduction of poverty and inequality frames the report’s analysis. The report focuses on six social groups: children, youth, older persons, persons with disabilities, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, and international migrants. It considers how gender and socioeconomic status intersect with other group attributes and affect the barriers some groups face. The 2030 Agenda draws attention to these bases of disadvantage when it emphasizes that all should be included “irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status”. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda also commits to providing appropriate social protection to all, including the vulnerable, persons with disabilities, indigenous persons, children, youth and older persons. Each of these groups is at high risk of poverty and exclusion and barriers to their rights. The report assesses the contribution of social protection measures to enhancing opportunities and promoting respect for the rights of the five groups selected.