The potential for work-based learning to improve the quality and relevance of vocational education and training is widely recognized. Work-based learning allows students to develop skills and gain experience through practical, real-life experiences in the workplace, complementing what is being learned in the classroom. However, many vocational education and training systems worldwide are still largely school-based and do not incorporate much work-based learning. There are many studies of mature training systems that are already largely employer-driven and firm-based, but less is known about how school-based vocational education and training systems can best transition to including stronger elements of work-based learning. This report takes a region of Poland as a case study to explore the complexities around strengthening work-based learning opportunities as a part of vocational education and training programs. The report focuses on the practical challenges faced by employers and schools in implementing workplace training opportunities and it also draws on international practices for addressing specific constraints. The report highlights that while a conducive policy framework is important, it is not sufficient on its own to improve the incidence, duration, and relevance of work-based learning. Efforts to strengthen work-based learning need to consider the capacity of both firms and training providers, their incentives to take part, and the support they need for their ongoing participation. International practices show that even in vocational education and training systems, where firm-based learning is part and parcel of training provision, significant resources are structurally allocated to support mechanisms to facilitate the process. This report thus recommends investing sufficiently in support mechanisms to firms and schools to facilitate the transition to increased and improved work-based learning. Specific recommendations for Poland’s Œwiêtokrzyskie region include piloting different approaches to implementing and facilitating work-based learning. Lessons learned should be incorporated in a subsequent roll-out. The findings and recommendations in this report were developed as part of World Bank assistance provided to Poland’s Œwiêtokrzyskie region under the European Union-financed Catching-Up Regions Programme. The analytical framework applied in this report, the findings, and the recommendations will provide knowledge and guidance for stakeholders and practitioners in this field globally.