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Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program
Detailed Assessment of Observance on Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision
Banking regulations and supervisory processes have undergone significant improvements since the last Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The Japan Financial Services Agency (JFSA) is in the process of reforming its supervisory practices and has been shifting its focus from assessing compliance with prudential requirements to a more sophisticated and forward-looking risk-based approach to supervising banks...
"Low for Long" and Risk-Taking
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing an unprecedented worldwide economic contraction, leading central banks to reduce interest rates to historically low levels and making unconventional monetary policies—including “low for long” interest rates and asset purchases—increasingly common. Arguably, however, the policies implemented are efficient because they encourage increased risk-taking, and they may have, if...
A Behavioral Approach to Financial Supervision, Regulation, and Central Banking
by Ashraf Khan
This paper describes how behavioral elements are relevant to financial supervision, regulation, and central banking. It focuses on (1) behavioral effects of norms (social, legal, and market); (2) behavior of others (internalization, identification, and compliance); and (3) psychological biases. It stresses that financial supervisors, regulators, and central banks have not yet realized the full potential that these...
A Buffer-Stock Model for the Government
Balancing Stability and Sustainability
by Jean-Marc Fournier
A fiscal reaction function to debt and the cycle is built on a buffer-stock model for the government. This model inspired by the buffer-stock model of the consumer (Deaton 1991; Carroll 1997) includes a debt limit instead of the Intertemporal Budget Constraint (IBC). The IBC is weak (Bohn, 2007), a debt limit is more realistic as it reflects the risk of losing market access. This risk increases the welfare cost of...
A Capital Market Union For Europe
This note weighs the merits of a capital market union (CMU) for Europe, identifies major obstacles in its path, and recommends a set of carefully targeted policy actions. European capital markets are relatively small, resulting in strong bank-dependence, and are split sharply along national lines. Results include an uneven playing field in terms of corporate funding costs, the rationing out of...
A Central Fiscal Stabilization Capacity for the Euro Area
This note outlines a concrete proposal for a euro area central fiscal capacity (CFC) that could help smooth both country-specific and common shocks. Specifically, it proposes a macroeconomic stabilization fund financed by annual contributions from countries that are used to build up assets in good times and make transfers to countries in bad times, as well as a borrowing capacity in case an exceptionally large...
A Closed Form Multivariate Linear Filter
by Francis Vitek
This paper considers the problem of jointly decomposing a set of time series variables into cyclical and trend components, subject to sets of stochastic linear restrictions among these cyclical and trend components. We derive a closed form solution to an ordinary problem featuring homogeneous penalty term difference orders and static restrictions, as well as to a generalized problem featuring heterogeneous penalty...
A Cohort-Based Analysis of Labor Force Participation for Advanced Economies
by Francesco Grigoli, Zsoka Koczan, and Petia Topalova
Advanced economies are in the midst of a major demographic transition, with the number of elderly rising precipitously relative to the working-age population. Yet, despite the acceleration in demographic shifts in the past decade, advanced economies experienced markedly different trajectories in overall labor force participation rates and the workforce attachment of men and women. Using a cohort-based model of...
A Comprehensive Multi-Sector Tool for Analysis of Systemic Risk and Interconnectedness (SyRIN)
by Fabio Cortes, Peter Lindner, Sheheryar Malik, and Miguel A. Segoviano Basurto
This paper presents the Systemic Risk and Interconnectedness (SyRIN) tool. SyRIN allows a comprehensive assessment of systemic risk via quantification of the impact of risk amplification mechanisms, due to interconnectedness structures across banks and other financial intermediaries—insurance, pension fund, hedge fund and investment fund sectors, which cannot be captured when analyzing sectors independently. The...
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